How to easily distinguish between hard magnetic and soft magnetic?
August 05, 2022

Magnetic materials are now mainly divided into two categories, one is soft magnetic materials, the other is hard magnetic materials (permanent magnetic materials).

Soft magnetic material: high permeability, easy to be magnetized and easy to demagnetize. In the saturation state, the magnetic flux is large, the coercivity (Hc) is small, the total area of the hysteresis loop is narrow and long, and the loss is small (the total area of HdB is small). Contains magnetic pure iron, silicon steel sheet, (Fe, Ni) ferrite core, etc.

They are suitable for automotive relays, motors, transformer skeletons and magnetic rings of various high-frequency magnetic induction components.

Soft magnetic materials are easy to be magnetized and easy to demagnetize, and their main functions are magnetic conductivity, conversion and transmission of electromagnetic energy, and are widely used in various electrical energy conversion equipment. 

Soft ferrite is the most used in inductance components. Soft ferrite is a kind of composite oxide. It is a composite body sintered by some metal oxides through a ceramic process. It is higher than metal materials, so the eddy current loss is extremely small, and it can work under high frequency conditions. However, because the electromagnetic characteristics are affected by temperature, it is not suitable for high-power electromagnetic devices, and it is only suitable for working under medium-high-frequency and low-power conditions.

Hard magnetic material: large magnetic energy product (Hc) (>102A/m), large magnetic loss Br, large total area of hysteresis loop, and large loss. Such as tungsten steel material, carbon steel, AlNiCo alloy, etc. After being magnetized, it can maintain strong magnetism for a long time, and is suitable for making permanent magnets in magnetoelectric watt-hour meters, electromagnets in mobile phone earphones, and rare earth permanent magnet speakers.

At present, our factory produces hard magnetic materials, that is, permanent magnet materials, including AlNiCo, SmCo, ferrite and NdFeB. Among them, the most expensive is SmCo magnet, and the cheapest is ferrite.The one with the highest performance is the NdFeB magnet, but the one with the most stable performance and the best temperature coefficient is the AlNiCo magnet.You can choose different hard magnetic products according to different needs.

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